Three different project are described below with experiences, opportunities and local limitations pointed out.
CAHMS vs ROHMS
Computer Aided Hospital Management System/Rural Oriented Hospital Management System
The whole pallet, from service up to operation has to be organized, which creates costs, -very characteristic of institutions in urban areas. This is quite opposite to institutions far away from the cities. The lack of finances, regarding staff as well as in the planning and use of the operating costs, needs to be appropriately taken into consideration. A rural oriented hospital management system (ROHMS) must take these factors into account. The difference between CAHMS and ROHMS is in location. In urban areas, a hospital functions only when the industrial-technological pre-conditions are met; i.e. personnel, training, patient care, air-conditioning, etc., must be adjusted. A problem in other cultures, for example, is the patient care by relatives, which often leads to difficulties in the recovery process and brings new health risks with it. In a ROHMS, specific characteristics of rural life are taken into account. The energy production is different, the employees are not confused through industrial training, the water supply, incl. Drainage is completely different as compared to urban areas. The traditional knowledge is used, natural climate control is utilized, local materials and traditional, yet adapted, forms of construction are used. The staff follows local forms of remuneration based on the traditional culture. Although this described system is already being practiced in an environmentally friendly manner etc., the influence of the resource-devouring, environmentally damaging industrial system is so widespread, that reasonable alternatives are unlikely to prevail.
Impact of CNC on the HC
In several essays, the problem of handmade objects has been outlined, which in an ever growing uniform environment have only little chance of promoting their original purpose, namely income enhancement for people (mainly women in rural areas) and to generate some revenue for the community. Problem points in this regard include the non-reversible push of people from rural into urban areas and the resulting requirement of regular income, which adds them to the existing consumer base. That the reality is quite opposite with declining numbers of productively active people and at the same time increasing production, is actually not recognized in the consumer world, so that nevertheless productively active artisans are supposed to adjust themselves of CNC and 3D production. This is not a world first. A look at the tourism centers shows clearly how strong the uniformity is already enforced, for example through travelers, who buy souvenirs in the assumption, that they are buying unique items. The buyer subtly enjoys using his buying habits from everyday life including bargaining and haggling, special bargains are attractive, little aware that they are actually contributing to the destruction of the handicraft itself. Ultimately, also the discussion about Original versus Copy comes up. Why buy an original in a world where true copies are easily available? - this is the underlying question. Color, sound, text, - everything is flexible and available; waiting for further application. But change has taken place not only in this field of art, but long ago also in the areas of fashion, leisure, food, education and health.
IISS / Integrated infrastructure system in a rural area
Thanks to the digital communication and information age, people even in remote rural areas obtain news about the lives of people in the so-called industrialized countries, - with all its possibilities and apparent abundance. One is inclined to share and participate in it, preferably immediately than later.
The problems behind the sham abundance are not perceived, not even by the producers, who are in fact proud of their performance: Water for all, Housing for all, etc., etc.. One cannot expect of the migrants to understand the economic ups and downs of the economic factors, - that's even true of the highly developed countries. It is like speaking of water and drinking wine. The correlations between production and commerce, consumption and uniformity are at best entertaining, - serving only as theory and as entertainment program for general distraction and targeted manipulation of the believing public and consumers. Background to this discussion is rural project, supposed to offer remedy through the targeted measure of providing flowing water to a basin for buffaloes and to bring the fresh water supply back on track. The process is to be accompanied by regular pH tests. The project is laudable, but lack of interest of the affected people is to be expected, who are possibly not interested in a controlled environmental pollution, or even its stoppage, and rather more interested in pursuing their internal family interests. There can also be no discussion of educational deficit or other cultures. This development is similar in the whole world: one is most interested in becoming a consumer, getting regular income, fixed breaks, - in short, the existing mistake further propagated by the media, which is erroneously perceived as progress.
At the invitation of SEMOL, Prof Dr Pintsch had a conversation with Prof Shaheda Rahman of the BRAC-University / Dhaka.
PDP held talks regarding support to local NGOs in rural areas, the involvement of students in such projects, as well as possible publication of relevant and interesting work in GreenMag from the areas of Appropriate Technology & Housing, and the use of C + I.
The term housing can be understood as a wider term for place of
residence and includes for example construction techniques using local
materials and traditional forms of construction up to Hi-Tech element
utilizing alternative technologies, in which concepts of re-cycling
(slums and autonomy (self-sufficiency) are implemented.
Extreme climatic and environmental conditions play an important role
in housing solutions. The spectrum of construction activities considering these factors
extend from steep coasts at and on seas up to those in stone ,ice and
sand deserts. Climate independent projects can be implemented at all places, where
changing climate plays an important role.
One should not be striving for an ideal type of housing rather
considering adaptation of housing solutions to local conditions.
Areas endangered by floods, storms and earthquakes around the globe
require special local based solutions.
Under the term “ Closed Systems” we understand projects with
completely different environmental conditions, which are not subject
to earthly climatic condition and influenced rather by metabolism and
production of water and oxygen, for example in space stations.
Such space stations appear at first utopian, however such a model of
closed system is interesting when considering global problems created
by changing climate and environmental conditions.
An example for housing under extreme environmental and climatic
conditions is the German Neumeier-Station the Antarctica. It serves
the research, but at the same time points to special construction
effort offering permanent experiences.
Natural catastrophes (earthquake in north India) and floods (Indus
region) have led to the search for suitable solutions for the affected
victims. There is no complete solution available as such but a number
Immediate help from foreign countries and local construction experts
are needed and when these are not sufficiently available, integration
of construction students into such activity is necessary.
The same is valid for regions with similar natural catastrophes
(earthquake in South East India) and flooding affected areas
(Ganges/Padma and Brahmaputra/Jamuna).
I may clarify right in the beginning: There will not be an end as long as the handicraft worker is an expert in his trade and maintains his cultural roots,- without losing the spirit of time.
At this point I may point to Art Nouveau and as one of its excellent example the Palais Stoclet in Brussels; it only proves: Excellence keeps standing!
For everything else is valid: When mass production predominates and the hope is to find consumers, who are less informed and more inclined to snap up anything offered at a super price, in the hope to be able to call something special as their own, then it is surely the rightful end of this article, which was anyway not real but a pseudo handicraft.
It is not a problem to scan and reproduce a unique article with help of CNC. This may sadden, but it is only a matter of getting used to it, like the 2-D copies.Even an experienced buyer cannot differentiate between the copy and the original piece. Only absolute experts with taste, knowledge and money know to appreciate it!
All others remain silent in the spirit of delusion!
The absolute majority vanishes, in the industrial uniformity and run for trade marks, wish for a seeming regular change through fashion and other such actions.
Insofar, this picture depicts not only the situation of handicrafts but also of everything which can be designed, including body products, clothing, internal and external designing up to the whole spectrum of industrially designed products.
Environmental protection and wastage of resources remain stuck at discussion level only.
Conclusion: There is no reason for sadness. In each period of time, only little remained back of cultural heritage; the meaningless taking the transitory path,- like the falling leaves in autumn, which vanish as dirt in the course of the year.
In the course of a human life, the direct relationship between the creator and the created is important and has its special value,- the economic relationship is an income generating measure and a charade. To see through it is left to the future generations!
As soon as the infrastructure allows it, manufacturing of various items of daily use but also handicrafts are started to be produced through industrial methods.
The argument here is normally: It must be worthwhile to produce the item, this refers to the economic level, which has and must have its short term and short sighted approach to problem resolution. The cultural aspect here is totally ignored, because an evaluation of something neither tangible nor calculable is hardly possible.
This dilemma is clearly visible in the development of share prices. They increase in totality according to general situation, because they represent the industrial production. It does not reflect the destruction of resources and the environmental damage, on which it is based.
As a graphical depiction, the industrial growth can be put in comparison to the loss of resources. Regarding manufacturing of unique pieces and requirement of the customers to purchase something very individual, the comparison would be with the estimated loss of the ability to manufacture the piece of handicraft.
Why should a unique piece be manufactured at a higher cost, if it can be manufactured industrially in a much larger quantity,- so the opinion and expectation of the purchasers.
In the field of the art market, runaways from the artistic scene suggest a demand for the items with unique characteristics. The specialty has a price. Participation in its production creates imitators, so the price continues to slide downward and withy that also the value.
This phenomena is actually not a phenomena but rather a result of the economic oriented approach.
Work places, resources, cultural values are regulated in this way and cause damage in social and political field.
It is remarkable, how little attention is given to the effects and causes. The industrial product with a logo has a higher value as compared to the unique product, especially then, when it is not communicated industrially.
The possibility of marketing unique items and small series is made difficult and obstructed through certification sectors, which in the context of value addition suggest safety, environmental protection and work protection.
Result is, that the unique product gradually falls away from perception for financial reasons through the missing value addition. The special thing is, that the richness of culture of a country gradually disappears.
Innovation and creativity are promoted, but limited due to economic arguments. The connections between climate, environment and culture are lost in the process of globalization. The forgotten and the lost differences however remain.
NGO means here socially oriented institutions and Ltd means here economically oriented institutions. The former manufacture something and they are also not dependent upon the market, however the social aspect prevails. The latter , and this is the tragic thing, see only economic growth as their sole purpose.
NGOs can be seen as institutions, which are supposed to subordinate themselves to the existing order of things, in order not to cause any problems.
Due to the given order and organization, eventual disturbace factors are also to be accepted. At the same time creativity and innovation is standardized to an extent, that critical voices rightfully put in question the sense of this order and organization.
Also this will be of no help except working on the effects only and trying to repair them.
The real causes for the multiple problems remain hidden, concealed and are therefore ignored. Should one make an effort to publish them, the basic structure would vanish and whole chain of problems would become visible.
At this place, we must refer to the widespread theory of sinus curves, which represent the reality as as permanent back and forth of repetition. The reality as a consequence is made up of total collapse and a new beginning, as is the case with a tangent curve, as explained impressively and repeatedly by the critical thinker KP Friebe.
Illusory prosperity, a mania for value addition and growth become recognizable as a thing that is wished for but in fact is impossible to achieve. A big crater becomes visible in the seemingly perfectly organized order of things.
It is to be doubted, whether in a new order, an appreciable number of people can be put to use in an active manner.
Ltd's as a metaphor for economic organization, have the ability to engage on an international level. They have long ago recognized the chance for overcoming the fictive and arbitrary boundaries of states and use this opportunity to the fullest. By using the technology and the factor time, they provide for the repeal and ineffectiveness in the political and social fabric.